Sapiens – A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Prof.Harari divided this book into 4 significant parts:

  1. The Cognitive Revolution

  2. The Agricultural Revolution

  3. The Unification of Mankind

  4. The Scientific Revolution

For now, I would like to react to the 1st part – The Cognitive Revolution Even before I embarked upon page 1, Prof. Harari’s introduction to the ‘Timeline of History’ gave me goosebumps … 13.5 billion years ago – Matter & Energy appear. Beginning of Physics Soon after – Atoms & Molecules appear. Beginning of Chemistry 4.5 billion years ag0 – Formation of planet Earth 3.8 billion years ago – Emergence of organisms. Beginning of Biology. 70,000 years ago – The Cognitive Revolution. Emergence of fictive language. Beginning of History. “Homo Sapiens hold the record among all organisms for driving the most plant and animal species to their extinction. We have the dubious distinction of being the deadliest species in the annals of biology”. The writer and avid researcher proclaimed. Wide-eyed, jaw-dropped, I read on … So, what made us powerful. I will try putting it in a nut-shell and give just one single thought out of the myriad thoughts and feelings that course through when I read and re-read few pages of this book. Apparently, it was our capability to unite flexibly and in large numbers that enabled Homo Sapiens to get onto the top of the food-chain. And why is it that only we can cooperate thus? Why can’t the rest of the animals, birds, reptiles and other Homo species that existed in the past could not and cannot cooperate in large numbers? The answer blew my mind! Dear Friends, the key to our evolutionary success, Yuval claims, is our ability to imagine and communicate FICTION, tell stories about fictitious things that do not exist! Ideas, for which millions will unite as strangers … Now let this sink … The most compelling fictitious stories we created in the History of Mankind are:

  1. Religion

  2. Nationalism

  3. Money and

  4. Law

Come to think of it, all the above phenomena are ‘true’ only because we all unite to believe in this fiction we created. A dollar or Euro or Rupee bill does not feed you, clothe you or shelter you. But, it can buy you whatever you want. Only because every other human being believes in the power of this paper. Millions of people gather peacefully at the Kumbh Mela, Vatican, Mecca and other places in the name of religion. Millions of people gather – unite peacefully at the Kumbh Mela, Vatican, Mecca and other places in the name of religion. International Conferences are planned, organized and attended by thousands in the name of Law – a law devised by us humans (not natural, not biological). Soldiers and citizens unite for nations – fictitious lines found only on maps and globes we produce. However hard the Chimpanzees, Lions, Elephants, Whales try, they are simply not capable to unite in large numbers. They stick to their herds. And thus, Homo Sapiens came out as victors. So what if it is fiction, it has helped our species to unite … and rule. Large, common ideas that helped us we strive to protect, unite and fight for … That is all from me for now. But I would like to leave you with a thought, and a song. 5,000 years ago, we needed Religion to unite. 5,000 years ago we started forming countries to unite. 2500 years ago we united to create universal money. 500 years back, capitalism made the entire planet a single historical arena. 200 years ago, with the Industrial Revolution, the state and market united us. We stand in the present now – transcending boundaries of planet Earth. Nuclear weapons, artificial intelligence, intelligent design are at our doorstep … If we had to unite once again towards one cause, one ideology, are we ready for a new story? Not fiction – A Reality. A Song – ‘Words’ by Boyzone This world has lost its glory Let’s start a brand new story Now, My love You think that I don’t even mean a single word I say … It’s only words And words are all I have To take your heart away

60 millions old Earth’s Crust exchanged for WHAT?

Crust of earth

Apparently, the volcanic basalt beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive Deccan Traps eruption, which occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous period between 67 and 66 million years ago. Some palaeontologists speculate that this eruption may have accelerated the extinction of the dinosaurs. Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted many thousands of years, and when the volcanoes became extinct, they left a region of highlands with typically vast stretches of flat areas on top like a table – Golkonda lies on this Deccan Plateau – the place where I live now … in Southern India, the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.1518–1687), known as Hyderabad now – district Telangana, India.

There was a time when India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda’s mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, and gems sold there came from a number of mines. Its name has taken a generic meaning and has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete (or almost-complete) lack of nitrogen; “Golconda” material is also referred to as “2A”. By the 1880s, “Golkonda” was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any particularly rich mine, and later to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name “Golkonda” acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous with vast wealth. The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687, then to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948.

Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or “Sea of Light”, at 185 carats (37.0 g), the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as:

Daria-i-Noor, Noor-ul-Ain, Koh-i-Noor, Hope Diamond, Princie Diamond, Regent Diamond, Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond (above information has been sourced from wikipedia)

If you look at this image carefully, I see this sight from ‘My Home’ balcony many times a day – Dynamite bombings, mesmerising robotic cranes, rows of makeshift construction dwellers’ houses and trucks carrying away silent ancient rocks to someplace else, to be broken down further for construction, to adorn the flooring or walls of another building – nameless, identity lost. Ironically replaced by skyscrapers named after jewels, nature etc. Igneous Rocks, Sedimentary, Metamorphic … all of them, go through this.

Crust of earth

I have wondered during lazy mornings, over a cup of chai – How can anyone own a piece of Earth? Land, as we call it. Alright, OK, yes! We can own land. As the most intelligent species living on land, let’s say we own it! We own land. But what gives anyone the right to dig 10 floors underground and raise 20 floors above to sell. Governments hold rights for mining. No precious material can be mined out of the Earth’s bosom. Gold, Oil, Minerals etc. What about rocks? Just because these Golconda rocks no longer produce diamonds, where do we get the moral, ethical or ‘Natural’ right to destroy these millions of years of rock formations?

These are just questions of an empty mind of course … Rocks do not speak our language. Nature speaks, though. In ways, we very well understand but choose to look away. It will look after itself maybe. Throw up more volcanoes, make more rocks. Million years is a massive time frame for us 100-year old humans, but not for Nature. For her, it’s just a blink of an eye …

Lost in Time

Mai Samay Hoon!

Mai Samay hoon

I wanted to put up this blog during Sankaranti, Pongal … But could not catch up with Time :-) … Possibly just like the Calendars / Panchangams I use at home … Today, I mull upon 2 Hindu Festivals – Makara Sankranti / Pongal and Ugadi.

Makara Sankranti marks the transition of the sun into the zodiacal sign of Makara (Capricorn) on its celestial path. In the year 2016 it was celebrated on the January 15th, 2016. 

Makar Sankranti Origin and Significance:

Makar Sankranti is a significant day as the Sun enters Makar Rashi (i.e. Capricorn zodiac) as per Vedic astrology. Although all twelve days in Hindu calendar when Surya Deva transits a Rashi are considered significant for worshipping Surya Deva, but the day when Surya Deva starts moving into Makar Rashi is considered the most auspicious of all Sankrantis.

Makara Sankranti is also celebrated as Uttarayana. The word Uttarayana is combination of Uttara and Ayana which mean north and movement respectively. Hence, by definition, Uttarayana means the Northwards movement of Sun (of course as seen from the earth). Which occurs on the day of December Solstice! Sol-stice. When Sun stands still briefly and assumes movement in the opposite direction.

In the Northern Hemisphere and of course India, Solstice and Uttarayana occurred on 21st December, 2016 at 16.14 hours (Indian Standard Time)

Now, there are 2 astronomical reasons for which Sankranti is celebrated:

  1. Sun entering the Zodiac / Constellation of Capricorn – January 20, 2016
  2. Beginning of the Northwards Movement of the Sun – December 21, 2015

 But, Makara Sankranti, Pongal, Uttarayana – All were celebreated on January 15, 2016

Now, I move on to Ugadi …

The name Yugadi or Ugadi is derived from the Sanskrit words yuga (age) and ādi (beginning): “the beginning of a new age” – A new Year in this context.

The Yugadi, as per Bhāskara-2 lunar calculations in the 12th century falls on the sunrise immediately after the first new moon after Sun crosses the celestial equator from south to north on the spring equinox and … Enters the First Point of Aries!

Astronomy agrees with that ! And full moon was on 23rd of March. And NEW MOON falls on the 8th of April !!! Bang ON !!! Ugadi is on the 8th April of 2016 ! I was confused about it till I started writing this down.

But here again – there are 2 astronomical aspects for which Ugadi could be celebrated:

  1. The Equinox – Which is an astronomical event in which the plane of Earth’s equator passes through the centre of the Sun. When day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet – This occured on the 20th of March in 2016.
  2. The first point of Aries - Over its year-long journey through the constellations, when the Sun enters the constellation / zodiac of Aries – This will occur on 18th April in the year 2016

If Aries is considered as the beginning of the Zodiac – Then Yugadi should be on the 18th of April this year right?

This is where some basic Astronomy came to my aid …

As the Earth orbits the sun, the sun appears to move against the background stars, which form different constellations. It’s not that the sun is actually moving. The motion is entirely an illusion caused by the Earth’s own motion around our Sun. The sun, relative to distant background stars drifts in an easterly direction from day to day. Over the course of a year, the sun appears to be in front of, or “in”, different constellations / Zodiacs – Aries to Pisces – (Approximately 28 days in each Constellation. (Stay with me please) …


What makes this complicated is that the North Pole is not always pointing in the same direction relative to the backdrop stars. Our Earth spins and wobbles like a top. A wobbling Earth makes the North Pole trace out a circle on the celestial sphere. Now, the wobble is quite slow—it takes 26,000 years to wobble around once.

Axial precession

Over the course of one orbit around the sun, the direction of the Earth’s axis drifts ever so slightly. But wait about 2000 years, and the sun will be sitting in an entirely different constellation!

The Astrological signs more or less aligned with their corresponding constellations when the modern Western Zodiac was defined about 2,000 years ago. But in the intervening centuries, the slow wobble of the Earth’s axis has caused the solstice and equinox points to shift roughly 30 degrees westward relative to the constellations! At present, signs and constellations are about one calendar month off. In another two thousand years or so, they’ll be about two months off.

For eg., (as quoted by drik panchangam author) - thousands years before (precisely in year 285 C.E. as per Lahiri Ayanamsha) the day of Makar Sankranti was coinciding with the day of Uttarayana. And we continue to celebrate !

  • Neither the Sun entering Capricorn
  • Not the beginning or Sun’s northwards movement

Or, during the time of Bhaskara-2, is it possible that the Sun crossed the celestial equator from south to north on the March Equinox and entered the First Point of Aries on that day? And we celebrate Ugadi:

  • Neither at the beginning of Aries
  • Nor at the Equinox

Somewhere, lost in time, jargon, lack of Scientific Support, unwillingness to change … or all of it. Celebrating, indeed ! But not knowing what I am celebrating :-)

‘Seriously Lost in Time’

And then, there’s a 3rd confusion – The Hindu Calendars still consider Ugadi on Chaitra Shuddha Padyami – The 1st day (new moon day) in the month of Chaitra which is said to be on the 8th of April by all Telugu and a couple of other Regional Panchagams (indian calendars). Which is in conflict with the Indian National Civil Calendar published by the Gazette of India!

Calendar structure

The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac normally used with Hindu Calendar.

  Month (Sanskrit) Length Start date (Gregorian) Tropical zodiac Tropical zodiac (Sanskrit)
1 Vaishākha 31 April 21 Taurus Vṛṣabha
2 Jyēshtha 31 May 22 Gemini Mithuna
3 Āshādha 31 June 22 Cancer Karkata
4 Shrāvana 31 July 23 Leo Siṃha
5 Bhaadra 31 August 23 Virgo Kanyā
6 Āshwin 30 September 23 Libra Tulā
7 Kārtika 30 October 23 Scorpio Vṛścik‌‌‌a
8 Agrahayana 30 November 22 Sagitarius Dhanur
9 Pausha 30 December 22 Capricorn Makara
10 Māgha 30 January 21 Aquarius Kumbha
11 Phalguna 30 February 20 Pisces Mīna
12 Chaitra 30/31 March 22/21 Aries Meṣa


Journey after The End.

There are things within us that ‘Live On’ after our Body dies !

Correct until Proven Wrong

Black Swan Theory

Today. Right Now. I believe that we ‘Live On’ even after our body ceases to exist. That, there is indeed ‘A Journey After’ … Till I come across a theory which speaks otherwise.

Many Hindu Philosophies have already taught us this:

“The Soul is immortal. Soul, at death gets released from this body, rises to the higher worlds or to the lower worlds.”

“The soul is never born nor dies at any time. Soul has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. Soul is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. Soul is not slain when the body is slain.”

“The 5 senses are superior to dull matter; mind is higher than the senses; intelligence is still higher than the mind; and the soul is even higher than the intelligence.” 

Any many such similar teachings …

“Who are You”? Somebody had asked me in a Workshop, about 20 years ago. And lead me to the Concept of:

  1. Body (The physical Body)
  2. Intellect (The Thinking)
  3. Mind (The Feeling)
  4. Soul (Which is none of the above). I would like to call my Soul ‘The God within me’

To these 4, I take the liberty of adding a couple more,

  1. Energy / Aura we all carry. Sometimes, it’s palpable. Almost physical. Like a Halo. An energy that people around me can feel and sense. That attracts or repels. Intangible. But Oh Yes, Present indeed !
  2. Then there is the ‘Subconscious Mind’. A warehouse of Power ! 

Swamy Vivekananda said, “Samskara is the Impression that sinks down deep into the region of the subconscious mind”. (From all our lifetimes) Innumerable memories from infinity leave impressions that remain embedded in our subconscious mind. All past experiences from all past lives are preserved . Every minute detail. And these Potent Residual Impressions do not DIE. They are permanent. In that part of us which is  not a part of the ‘Physical Body’ or the 5 senses.

Vivekananda further states, “When you are born, the mind is not a mere Tabula Rasa (a smooth or blank tablet or a blank sheet of white paper). It is a storehouse of Samskaras. A child is born with his Samskaras. A child is born with his past experiences transmuted into mental and moral tendencies and powers. The mind evolves through the impressions received from the universe through the senses. It will take many bodies till it gathers the complete experience of the world. Every man is born with his inborn or inherent Samskaras and these Samskaras are embedded, lodged or imprinted in the Chitta (the subconscious mind) which is the basis for Prarabdha (the beginning) of this lifetime. In earthly life, we gain many more Samskaras or experiences through actions and these are added to the original store and further accumulate.

Prarabdha Karma is that portion of the past karma which is responsible for the present body and life. Deeds & Lessons that we chose, to bring to our current life from our past lives. The choices that Our Own Conscious Soul makes … For our welfare & growth.

So … What happens when death comes?

Our Body

When a person dies the physical body ceases to exist. However, the rest of his existence or consciousness continues. The existence of the person minus the physical body is known as the subtle body (linga-dēha) and it comprises of the mental, causal (intellect) and supracausal (subtle ego) bodies.

This subtle body then goes to one of the subtle planes of existence other than the Earth. The Earth plane is the only physical plane of existence in the Universe – But Not the Only Plane :-) We just go some place else. In the Universe. Possibly to a plane where the rest of the folks are just like us – At the same level of Consciousness. Uniform.

Because … possibly … Earth is the only plane of existence where there is an amalgamation of people with varying levels of Consciousness.

Journey after The End is Journey into the Universe.

Vivekananda on Soul


Vedism – Satya & Rita

New terminology I came across, when I started going back and back in time …

Vedism (Vedic Religion), the religion of the ancient Indo-Aryan peoples who entered India about 1500 BCE from the region of present-day Iran. It takes its name from the collections of sacred texts – the Vedas. Vedism is the Oldest Stratum of religious activity in India for which there exist written materials. It was one of the major traditions that shaped Hinduism.

Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta pronounced Rita or Ritam). Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute, whereas ṛta is the expression of satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.

In the hymns of the Vedas, Ṛta is described as that which is ultimately responsible for the proper functioning of the natural, moral and sacrificial orders. Conceptually, it is closely allied to Dharma and Karma – two terms which eventually eclipsed Ṛta in importance as signifying natural, religious and moral order in later Hinduism. ‘Sacrificial’ replaced by ‘Religious’ Conformity with ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment.

The Vedic religion gradually metamorphosed into the various schools of Hinduism, which further evolved into Puranic Hinduism.

Vedic Gods

The Rig Veda - There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Deities by prominence:

List of Rigvedic deities by number of dedicated hymns.

Vishvadevas (all gods together) have been invoked 70 times.

Indra 289

Agni 218

Soma 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala)

The Asvinis 56

Varuna 46

The Maruts 38

Mitra 28

Ushas 21

Vayu (Wind) 12

Savitr 11

The Rbhus 11

Pushan 10

The Apris 9

Brhaspati 8

Surya (Sun) 8

Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth) 6, plus 5.84 dedicated to Earth alone

Apas (Waters) 6

Adityas 6

Vishnu – 6 times

Brahmanaspati 6

Rudra – 5 times

Dadhikras 4

The Sarasvati River / Sarasvati 3


Parjanya (Rain) 3

Vāc (Speech) 2 (mentioned 130 times, deified e.g. in 10.125)

Vastospati 2

Vishvakarman 2

Manyu 2

Kapinjala (the Heathcock, a form of Indra) 2

The period after the Vedic religion, is the formative period for Hinduism – arguably ‘The Oldest Living Religion’. This was a time when traditional religious practices and beliefs of the Vedic Religion were reassessed. Some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and ‘personal enlightenment and transformation’, did not exist in the Vedic religion. Neither did ‘The existence of ONE God or ONE Supreme Being’.

Here I stumbled upon the White Island, The Jeweled Island and the Milky Ocean – Story of Narada & sages Nara Narayana … And it took me to various other stories. The story of the Sages Ekata, Dvita and Trita. And I stand stupefied when I read …

The Mahabharata also refers to “Atala, the White Island”, which is described as an “island of great splendour.” It continues: “The men that inhabit that island have complexions as white as the rays of the Moon and they are devoted to Narayana . . . Indeed, the denizens of White Island believe and worship only one God.” (Santi Parva, Section CCCXXXVII)‘

The Santi Parva also describes Atala as being inhabited by white men who never have to sleep or eat. (Ibid.) Interestingly enough, the Greek historian Herodotus (450 B.C.) describes a tribe of Atlanteans who “never dream and eat no living thing”. (History, Book IV) Can this be coincidence? And just as the god Poseidon is very much involved in the Atlantis story, likewise in the Sanskrit accounts we find Varuna (the Hindu Poseidon) very much involved in Atala.

In other words, Atala, the White Island is remarkably similar to Plato’s Atlantis, even down to its circular capital city, Tripura!

Laden with metaphor ! All our Puranas. Is it metaphor? That I am struggling with here?



Narada is wondering … “Nara and Narayana, are now dwelling here engaged in penances for the object of enhancing their merit. These two are the highest refuge of the universe. What can be the nature of the daily rites these two perform? They are the sires of all creatures, and the illustrious deities of all beings. Endued with high intelligence, what is that deity whom these two worship? Who are those Pitris whom these two Pitris of all beings adore?

“Narada said, In the Vedas and the Puranas, in the Angas and the subsidiary Angas thou art sung with reverence, thou art unborn and eternal. Thou art the Creator. Thou art the mother of the universe. Thou art the embodiment of Immortality and thou art the foremost of all things. The Past and the Future, indeed, the entire universe has been established on thee! The four modes of life, O lord, having the domestic for their first, ceaselessly sacrifice to thee that art of diverse forms. Thou art the father and the mother and the eternal preceptor of the universe. We know not who is that deity or that Pitri unto whom thou art sacrificing to-day!

“The holy one said, This topic is one about which nothing should be said. It is an ancient mystery. Thy devotion to me is very great. Hence, O regenerate one, I shall discourse to thee on it agreeably to the truth. … “–that is called the in-dwelling Soul of all existent creatures. That is known by the name of Kshetrajna. Transcending the three attributes of Sattwa, Rajas, and Tamas, that is regarded as Purusha in the scriptures.

“Even He is what we worship in all those rites that we perform in honour of the deities and the Pitris. There is no higher deity or Pitri than He. O regenerate one, He should be known as our Soul. It is him that we worship.”

This is the settled conclusion of the scriptures that these persons freed from these seven and ten attributes, (viz., the five senses of knowledge, the five senses of action, the five vital breaths, and mind and understanding), who have cast off all acts, and are divested of the five and ten elements which constitute the gross body, are said to be Emancipate. That which the Emancipate attain to as their ultimate end is called by the name of Kshetrajna. He is regarded (in the scriptures) as both possessed of and free from all the attributes. He can be apprehended by Knowledge alone. We two have sprung from Him. Knowing him in that way, we adore that eternal Soul of all things. The Vedas and all the modes of life, though characterised by divergences of opinion, all worship Him with devotion.

I have now, O Narada, discoursed to thee on what is high mystery moved by the love I bear to thee for thy devotion to me. Indeed, in consequence of that devotion which thou professest towards me, thou hast succeeded in listening to this my discourse!” – Said Narayana !

Talking of the soul within. The life within us. You & I and Life – The Purusha. And Prakriti. Not Brahma, Vishnu or Maheshwara. Or the Devi …

The universe is described by the Samkhya School as one created by the ‘purusa-prakṛti’ entities – Human & Nature infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind. During the state of imbalance, one of more constituents overwhelm the others, creating a form of bondage, particularly of the mind. The end of this imbalance, bondage is called liberation, or kaivalya, by the Samkhya school.

Kaivalya (कैवल्य), is the ultimate goal and means “solitude”, “detachment” or “isolation”. It is the isolation of purusha from prakriti, and subsequent liberation. A fine balance – So complicated, yet so simple – “Knowing that a human is fused with the nature, Yet Separate. That is a Happy Soul, A state of Heaven, Ultimate Bliss !

Rumi Small


Vyasa Muni

Veda Vyasa

Sage Veda Vyasa, the author of Mahabharata, Scribe of the Vedas & 18 Hindu Maha Puranas. The one who classified the 4 Hindu Vedas. Most versions of the ‘Moola Puranas’ of HInduism are all scripted by him. One Sage’s work – the Works of his lifetime.

He is the Son of Sage Parashara and Satyavathi.

And Parashara is the son of Shakti Maharishi, who was the son of Sage Vashishtha & Arundhati (of the Saptarishi).

Most lineages of ancient Indians came and ended here. At Lord Brahma’s creations & the 7 Saptarishis OR the 10 Prajapatis.

Sage Agastya lived around 4000 BC. Excerpts from the below article from ancient indians makes this assumption

This article tries to makes a connection between canopus and Agastya. It makes 2 sets of assumptions and calculations arrives at a date for Agastya around 4000 BC.

Assumption set A:

  • The nakshatram Canopus was named Agastya after the Rishi Agastya.
  • This was so because he was the first sanskrit northerner to sight it.
  • He sighted it as soon as he crossed the Vindhyas.

A chapter of the Srimad Bhagavatam provides details about the birth of Vasishta and Agastya – Sons of Urvasi, the apsara. And the fathers of Vasishta and Agastya are Mitra and Varuna (sons of Aditi)

Agastya and Vasiṣṭha Ṛṣis were the common sons of Varuṇa and Mitra, the tenth son of Aditi. Upon seeing Urvaśī, the celestial society girl, both Mitra and Varuṇa discharged semen, which they preserved in an earthen pot. The two sons Agastya and Vasiṣṭha later appeared from that pot, and they are therefore the common sons of Mitra and Varuṇa.

Which means Sage Agastya & Sage Vasistha were born at the same time. Lived in the same era. Around 4000 BC.

Oh my God !!! I’m beating around the BUSH. In fact, going all around the forest. I’m going to arrive now. I’ll talk lineage. Father to son.

Lord Brahma

Sage Kashyapa & Wife Aditi

Kashyapa & Aditi’s Sons Mitra & Varuna

Mitra & Varuna’s sons from Urvasi – Agastya & Vasistha

Vasishtha’s Son - Shakti Maharishi

Shakti Maharishi’s son – Parashara

Parashara and Satyavathi’s son – Sage Vyasa … Phew ! 6 generations from Lord Brahma.

Vyasa lived during Mahabharata era. Agreed. Around 3100 BC. His great grandfather Agastya lived around 4000 BC. Just a thousand years. Makes sense.

What I struggle to understand is this. Most remnant Hindu stories. Most prominent. The Mahabharata, The Ramayana, The 18 Puranas, to some extent The Vedas. Were all written by one man. One Maharishi. One Sage. Veda Vyasa. Who lived approximately around 5000+ years back.

The backbone of all the spiritualism that I’m exposed to. It’s only 5000+ years old? Is 5000 Years a short time? NO. Not at all ! It is a long … long time.

But the earth that I currently live on formed 4550 million years ago. With these many zeroes - 4,55,00,00,000. Life, in the simplest form started 4000 million years ago. The first human (research states) possibly existed 2.8 million years ago. Much much earlier than 5000 Years ago, before THE PRAJAPATIS (as per Hindu texts) existed.

That is when I ask myself? Should I follow ancient wisdom? Vedas, Puranas, which appeared 5000 Years ago. Then why not Lucy (mentioned below) ?! (name given in present days for reference)

Scientists have unearthed the jawbone of what they claim is one of the very first humans.

The 2.8 million-year-old specimen is 400,000 years older than researchers thought that our kind first emerged.

The discovery in Ethiopia suggests climate change spurred the transition from tree dweller to upright walker.

The head of the research team told BBC News that the find gives the first insight into “the most important transitions in human evolution”.

Or do I depend on ‘the knowledge body’ I know of, today? Are we not progressing with time? Our knowledge increasing?

The Vedic Period in India is given below in a tabular format. I give benefit of doubt to a bit of variance in the timelines though …

Civilizations by date

The beginning of HInduism – A Religion (all said and done). And all Religions have always been driven by Power & by socio-political reasons.

All texts written … Only a few thousand years old. Our Shaastras.

I have a counter argument for myself here. About cyclic time, time-bending, parallel universe and all. What about all that? What about 1 Yuga being a few laks years et al. I reserve that argument for a later date. My next write-up.

To me, as I am today, from where I stand on this earth. What I said above is what is on my mind today :-)

Aditi – The Universal Mother?

Aditi has the honour of being ALMOST THE ONLY GODDESS mentioned by name in the Rig-Veda, as the mother of the gods. It is also said that Aditi is the personification of “universal, all-embracing Nature or Being”.

In the account of the Creation given in the Rig-Veda, Aditi is said to have sprung from Daksha, and in the same verse Daksha is called her son. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda. Please note this verse from Rig Veda … “Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha”

The vedic Hymns mention her frequently as ‘The Mother of Gods & all creatures’ …

She is also seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. 

Brahma & Aditi

In contrast, the Puranas, such as the Siva Purana and the Bhagavata Purana, suggest that Aditi is wife of Sage Kashyap and gave birth to the Adityas such as Indra, Surya and also Vamana

After the Mahabharata war, when Yudhishtira praises Krishna – Mahabharata Shantiparva Chapter 43 verse 6, he mentions that Vishnu was born to Aditi seven times.

So, here are a few schools of thought I gather in my mind:

  1. That Aditi is Sage Kashyapa’s wife & the Mother of Adityas
  2. Kashyapa is a manasaputra of Lord Brahma. OR, according to [Rama:1.70.20], he is the grandson of Lord Brahma, being the son of Marichi, a manasaputra of Lord Brahma.
  3. Daksha too, is one of the many Manasaputras of Lord Brahma, though according to some sources he is born to Lord Brahma & Aditi.

Aditi, the wife of Sage Kashyapa, as per many puranas …

And according to the Rig Veda, is the mother of Daksha (ADITYAS – sons of Aditi) 

It is said that Vamana Avatar, the 5th of Lord Vishnu’s Dasavataras is the son of Aditi. Vamana Avatar is also said to be the 1st Avatar of Treta Yuga.


Please Note:

Hiranyaksha & Hiranyakashipu are also his sons. Sons of Sage Kashyapa & Diti. The demons who feature in the 3rd & 4th Avatar’s of Lord Vishnu. 

Varaha & Narasimha Avatars are said to be from the Satya / Krita Yuga. The 1st of our cyclic Yugas.

Prahalad, who is son of Hiranyakashipu is the GrandFather of Bali Chakravarthy – who was defeated by Vamana in Treta Yuga – 2 Yugas accounted back to back. Within a few generations. Couple of thousands of years. Not Lakhs !

Historification of Hindu Myhtology

Many Indian theories claim that …

Based on scriptural details and astrological calculations, the date of Krishna’s birth, known as Janmashtami is pegged at 18 July 3228 BCE. He was born to Devaki and Vasudeva. And that -

Krishna’s Death was on 18th February 3102 BCE (the start of Kali Yuga). This information pegs his life span at about 126 Years.

And … As per the Institute for Scientific Research on Vedas (I-SERVE), planetarium software has ascertained the birth of Lord Rama as 10th January 5114 BC in Ayodhya. As per the Indian calendar the time of the birth is in-between 12 noon and 1pm, Shukla Paksha in Chaitra month.

Two fairly close estimates of time periods from Hindu Mythology – Ramayana & Mahabharata which are epics from Treta & Dwapara Yuga respectively.

Krishna’s parents were – Vasudeva & Devaki

Vasudeva’s father was Shurasena. Whose father (some theories claim) was Kartavirya Arjuna.

Shurasena was an ancient Yadava ruler of Mathura after whom the Surasena Kingdom or mahajanpada and the Yadava sect of Surasenas or Shoorsainis were named. According to a tradition, found in the Linga Purana (I.68.19), Shurasena was son of Kartavirya Arjuna. According to the Devibhagavata Purana (IV.1.2), Shurasena was father of Vasudeva (father of Krishna).He is extensively mentioned in both the Mahabharata and the Puranas as the father of Vasudeva (father of Krishna) and Kunti (mother of Pandava).

Kartavirya Arjuna of the Parasu Rama times – Of the Treta Yuga – The one who was killed by Parasu Rama. The one who defeated Ravana of Ramayana.

Kartavirya Arjuna was a legendary king of an ancient Haihayas kingdom with capital at Mahishmati which is on the banks of Narmada River. Kartavirya was son of Kritavirya, king of the Haiyayas.

The Haihayas were an ancient confederacy of five ganas (clans), who claimed their common ancestry from Yadu. According to the Harivamsha Purana, (34.1898) Haihaya was the great grandson of Yadu and grandson of Sahasrajit. 

Somewhere then, Parasurama entered the myths. From a Brahmin warrior class. The arrival of this warrior class sage to India, was somewhere around the transition period of Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga. They have attacked and annihilated the existing Kshatriya rulers of India, as many as 21 times, probably spanning a time period of a 1,000 years. The rulers of central India were the major victims of this massacre. The first victim of Parasurama was a ruler of central India, of Haiheya tribe, called Kartavirya Arjuna. 

Parasurama was from the Bhargavas community, who are descendants of Rishi Bhrigu. From the lineage of Bhrigu – “Parshuram was in his 39th generation of Bhrigu and had existed during the period of Bhagwan Ram Chandra and period of Ramayana. Parshuram is also known as ‘Bhargava Rama’. 

Yayati and Devayani
Kartavirya Arjuna
Vasudeva & Devaki

Is it not interesting to find a connection between 2 Yugas? The treta Yuga & the Dwapara Yuga – A connection which may lead to an intriguing fact that …

‘A forefather of Krishna (Kartavirya Arjuna) was slayed by Parasurama who dwelled in Treta Yuga …

A story of just 2000 Years (approximately). NOT a few Lakhs Years (as hinted by the Yuga time-span in a few Puranas …

I tried finding links till Yadu, Puru, Kuru & their father YAYATI. I will try & see how much earlier I’ll be able to peep into … Till Brahma? – The Creator. Till the Prajapatis? His 1st descendants, who were entrusted with the duty of procreation. Till Saptarishis? – Our 1st Sages … I hope I’m able to find the connections I’m looking for …

Having said that – I have a strong uncanny sense – Evolution as per Hinduism is not that far. Not lakhs of years. Its a few thousands. Similar to the ‘Evolution of Man’ as per Historical datings …

Please watch this space. Join me in my Journey … to someplace for sure

What is Time?

To me, I first learnt time looking at the Clock at home.

The smallest measure being a ‘Second’. 60 seconds in a ‘Minute’. 60 minutes in an ‘Hour’. And that 24 hours make a day. That’s what the Clock says. And, “A clock, by definition is an instrument to indicate, keep, and co-ordinate time”. It brings me back to wondering … what is TIME?

Then I come across the concept of ‘Sidereal Time’, which is a system of time-keeping. Sidereal time is a time scale that is based on the Earth’s rotation measured relative to the ‘Fixed Stars’ (not just the Sun).

A sidereal day is a few minutes lesser than 24 hours (Approximately 5 minutes) – The time taken for our Earth to make 1 rotation.

A Sidereal Month is the period of the Moon’s Orbit – About 27-28 days.

A sidereal Year is The time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun once with respect to the fixed stars – A little more than 365 & quarter days.

This seemed like something I kind of understood throughout. What’s something I learnt new is that …

The Earth rotates once a day about its axis of rotation AND THAT – THIS AXIS ITSELF rotates slowly, completing a rotation in approximately 26,000 Years. The small white circle at the top … shown in the below image. That is the rotation of earth’s axis. Which takes about 26000 Years


I wonder … If this rotation of the Earth’s axis takes us ‘Closer’ & ‘Farther’ to the Sun. And I tried reading up on wikipedia to find out if this movement is an ‘Elliptic’ or ‘Circular’ motion. This movement of the Earth, does it actually make any difference to the living things on the Earth? Or is it just a ‘time-keeping system’? I haven’t yet figured out my answers for the above questions.

But what struck me, more importantly, is the connection between the Length of the 4 Yugas that some Hinduism texts quote and this 26000 years Precession Cycle. 26000 Years divided into 4 Yugas. Some theories claim that the Yugas are divided equally. And some claim that they follow a ratio of 4:3:2:1

There are four Yugas in one cycle:

  • Satya Yuga a time of truth and righteousness
  • Treta Yuga – The time when Lord Rama walked this Earth
  • Dwapara Yuga – Sri Krishna’s Era
  • And Kali Yuga – supposedly, a time of darkness, crime and non-virtue.

Now let us picture this timeline example …


“The Precession (caused by gradual rotation of the Earth’s axis) of the equinoxes is the period of time that it takes the Earth’s axis to pass through one complete cycle of the zodiac. It takes the planet 72 years to pass through one degree of the zodiac and 25,920 years to complete one full circle of 360 degrees. One half of the journey takes 12,960 years and covers the four yugas.

Satya Yuga lasts 5184 years.

Treta Yuga lasts 3888 years.

Dwapara Yuga lasts 2592 years.

Kali Yuga lasts 1296 years.

These four yugas taken together come to a total of 12,960 years

A similar theory by the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta - the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BC. Roughly the time when Lord Krishna’s Era ended.

Many modern theories also claim that – Three to four months after the Mahabharata war, the Kali Yuga began.(With very slight variance). Which suggest that, as of 2015 AD, Krishna’s era ended about 5,117 years ago.

If you subtract 2592, which is the cumulative number of years of the two Kali Yugas that are at the bottom of the ellipse which describes the axial precession, you arrive at 2522 years. That means we have already completed 2522 years of Dwapara Yuga, and since its total duration is 2592 years, we still have 70 years until its completion.

So, in 2080s, we will complete Dwapara Yuga and move on to Treta Yuga !”

Here, I question myself again – All these dates & theories, Are they just a ‘time-keeping system’? Or does the distance of the Earth from the Sun have an impact on the Intelligent & Conscious living of human beings on the Earth? Thoughts are racing through my mind. Many of them …

  1. One says, the moon, the earth, its axis, the Sun, our Solar System – Everything. Everything is spinning. Orbiting. For innumerable years, decades, centuries & thousands of Years. That’s how the Universe is made. And what difference does that make? To ME? As the person that I am. But then …
  2. A 2nd thought in my mind challenges me. For my lack of curiosity. Prods me to think. Tiny, minute changes that happen ON earth, TO earth have HUGE impacts. How can its spinning & movement & proximity or angle from our Sun, not have any impact !

So, I chose to indulge my 2nd thought. And I would like to nurture the thought that timelines, periods, yugas … Are no doubt ‘time-keeping systems’, BUT they do have an impact on me.

When there is a ‘Solstice’. And the sun appears to stand still (maybe for a few seconds). And reverses its direction … When I see it moving Northwards or Southwards, yes it matters to me. And it should. When it is the Longest day and the Shortest day or when Day & Night are exactly the same duration during Equinox, yes it matters to me.

Watch this space next. For my thoughts on the following information I read:

Jan 20, 2015: Sun enters constellation Capricornus (299.66o)

The Tropic of Cancer is the circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees north, where the sun is directly overhead at noon on June 21, the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Capricorn is the circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees south where the sun is directly overhead at noon on December 21, the beginning of winter in the northern hemisphere. When the lines were named 2000 years ago, the Sun was in the constellation of Capricorn during the winter solstice and Cancer during the summer solstice (hence the names). Now due to the precession of the equinoxes the Sun is no longer in these constellations during these times, but the names remain.

The equator is the circle where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on the equinoxes.

  • During earlier days First point of Cancer  and first point of Capricorn, when the sun is entering that sign were important.
  • Due to the axial precession however, the constellations where the solstices are currently located are TAURUS & Sagittarius respectively.